The Self Sufficiency Pages
Home food production, renewable energy, alternative technologies, sustainable agriculture
with an emphasis on Brisbane and Queensland

Citrus

There is an enormous amount of information about citrus online, given the economic importance of this group. A selection of links has been provided below for your convenience.

Many will be aimed at the commercial farmer, but may nevertheless contain information the home gardener may find interesting or useful. (Publications aimed at the home gardener are often light on detail.


News

Genetic insights into Citrus evolution

A large study of chloroplast DNA from 30 species of has confirmed that a single common ancestor gave rise to all Citrus fruit, although hybridisation occurred frequently during evolution of the genus. Furthermore, two genes believed to help the Australian species adapt to hotter and drier climates were identified. Source: Most comprehensive study to date reveals evolutionary history of citrus (April 2015)

Illegal Kaffir lime leaves pose threat

An importer has been been charged with illegally importing kaffir lime leaves infected with Asian Citrus Canker. Leaves had already made their way into retail outlets prior to the discovery. Source: Kaffir gaffe lands fine for importer (February 2015)


 illustration
Examples of triple grafted trees, with graft points marked in white. Top: One bud has grown and been cut back while waiting for the others to shoot. Below: It can take some time and management for all buds to reach a balanced stage, which contributes to the cost of a good multigraft
  
Feature Article

Multigrafted Fruit - A Cocktail on a Tree

Eila and Jean, Noosa Jem, Queensland

Multi-grafted fruit trees are fun and unusual. They're also practical, being great time, space, and water savers.

Noosa Jem specialises in multi-grafted "Citrus Cocktail" trees. The dwarfing root stocks used are resistant to many common citrus diseases and have the ability to tolerate wet and cold conditions. Dwarf trees produce good crops of normal size fruit on a tree of manageable height. They can be planted either in the ground, or in large pots.

The most common misconception about multi-grafts is that they don't work because one of the varieties will "take over". This can be true if the plant is left to its own devices. The solution is simple and easy - prune back the more vigorous graft until the other(s) have caught up.

Of course, it's important to start with a well-produced tree with strong, stable and balanced growth.

You could have an orange tree with three different varieties that fruit at different times, giving a longer harvest period and avoiding a glut. Or, you could have a tree which produces limes and tangelos at the same time!

The creative gardener, or one with a small balcony space or limited space along a fence, could espalier a multi-graft with different varieties trained to grow in different directions.

If you want to grow a wide variety of fruit but have limited space or you just like to try something unusual, a dwarfing multi grafted tree could be for you.

Update: Unfortunately, Noosa Jem is no longer operating.

Links

The following links have been provided for general information. The particulars of growing these crops successfully will vary depending on your location, especially with respect to pests and diseases and their treatment. If in doubt, check with local authorities for current information on permissable pesticides, and always follow directions on the label of any products you may purchase. (see also Pests and Diseases).

More general information about fruit here: Fruit

Citrus in the garden NSW Department of Primary Industries
Frequently asked questions about citrus Qld Dept Agriculture and Fisheries Citrus Information Kit. Agrilink, your growing guide to better farming guide Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Horticulture Institute
Citrus Tips Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland
Citrus Questions & Answers by Ian Tolley Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland
Citrus Vine Trellising Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland
Citrus: Lemon, Lime, Orange, Tangerine, Grapefruit - Citrus spp. Mark Rieger's Fruit Crop Home Page, The University of Georgia
Planting citrus trees NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus Orchard Establishment Texas A&M University
Caring for young citrus trees NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus Pruning Texas A&M University
Managing citrus orchards with less water NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus Water Management Texas A&M University
Citrus Offers Year-Round Options Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems, California
Cold Protection Texas A&M University

Flowering and Fruiting, Pollination
Pollination Aware - Citrus Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) (PDF)
Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants (Citrus in Chapter 5.) Handbook available online at Agricultural Research Service, USA website (PDF)
Let citrus ripen on the tree University of Florida (PDF)
Hand thinning citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries

Soil and Nutrition
How to manage soil for citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus nutrition Includes some illustrations of deficiency symptoms. NSW Department of Primary Industries
Plant Nutrients for Citrus Trees University of Florida
Iron and zinc deficiencies in citrus (download the PDF from that page) NSW Department of Primary Industries
Magnesium and manganese deficiencies in citrus (download the PDF from that page) NSW Department of Primary Industries
Response of Citrus to Silicon Soil Amendments Reproduction of a 2001 article, Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society (PDF)
Response of Citrus to Seaweed-Based Nutrient Sprays Reproduction of a 1988 article, Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society (PDF)
For more about soil issues in general, see Soils, Plant nutrition, Mulches

Varieties (overview)
Citrus in the garden (A simple overview of varieties and common problems) NSW Department of Primary Industries
Rootstock and Scion Varieties Texas A&M University
Varieties & rootstocks NSW Department of Primary Industries
A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae) Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney
Sorting Citrus names Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne
Citrus (Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit, Naartjie genus) Biodiversity Explorer, Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa
Citrus Overview of Australian native citrus and commercial hybrids

Lemons
Citrus limon Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Lemon Growing Manual Extensive information as a collection of PDFs aimed at the professional grower. NSW Department of Primary Industries
Growing lemons at home in the Northern Territory Northern Territory Government
Lemon (Citrus limonia 'Lisbon') Moody Demonstration Garden, Arizonia
Citrus x meyeri 'Meyer' Missouri Botanical Garden
Citrus x taitensis Risso (Rough Lemon, Rangpur Lime, Wild Lemon, Bush Lemon). PlantNET, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney
Citrus jambhiri (Rutaceae) National Tropical Botanical Garden

Oranges
Citrus sinensis Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Orange (Citrus sinensis) Moody Demonstration Garden, Arizonia

Mandarins, Tangerines
Citrus reticulata Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Mandarin Orange from Fruits of Warm Climates by Julia F. Morton
Some Tangerines to Know and Grow (also some info on Tangelos) Univ. Florida (PDF)
Fairchild Tangerine (Citrus reticulata "Fairchild" or Clementine). Moody Demonstration Garden, Arizona
Citrus reticulata 'Clementine' Missouri Botanical Garden
Murcott (Honey Tangerine) University of Florida
Minneola Tangelo University of Florida
Some Tangerines to Know and Grow (also some info on Tangelos) Univ. Florida (PDF)

Limes
Citrus aurantifolia (Key lime, acid lime, Mexican lime, sour lime, West Indian lime) Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization

Grapefruit, Pommelo
Citrus paradisi Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Pummelo - Inducing seedless fruit Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland
Pummelo Tips Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland
Home Fruit Production - Grapefruit Texas Citrus and Subtropical Fruits
Grapefruit From Fruits of warm climates, by Julia F. Morton
Grapefruit Moody Demonstration Garden, Arizona
Pummelo Citrus maxima from the online version of Fruits of Warm Climates by Julia F. Morton
Citrus grandis (Pomelo, pummelo, shaddock. Synonym=Citrus maxima) Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Pomelo Germplasm in Vietnam Food & Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific region

Citron, Bergamot
Citrus medica (True citron, Citrus aurantium var. medica) Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Buddha's Hand -- Citrus medica Hawaii Horticulture
Citrus aurantium (Sour orange, bitter orange) Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Citrus aurantium ssp. bergamia (Bergamot orange) Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization

Cumquat, Calamondin
Fortunella japonica Ecocrop database, Food and Agriculture Organization
Calamondin In: Fruits of Warm Climates by Julia F. Morton, Florida

Australian native citrus
Australian native citrus now on their own page: Australian native citrus

Dwarf Citrus and Growing Citrus in Containers
Dwarf Citrus Trees: Big On Flavor & Fragrance Montgomery County Maryland (PDF)
Dwarfing and Freeze Hardiness Potential of Trifoliate Orange Rootstocks This article also discusses the dwarfing effect of trifoliate rootstocks, especially Flying Dragon
Dwarf Meyer Lemon Bush Perfect for Tiny Gardens! Shirley Bovshow's Edenmakers' Blog (California)
Dwarfing citrus trees using viroids NSW Department of Primary Industries
Growing Citrus In Containers University of Florida (PDF)
Citrus - Growing Indoors Walter Reeves, Georgia

Rootstocks
Rootstocks for citrus Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries
Varieties & rootstocks NSW Department of Primary Industries
Rootstock and Scion Varieties Texas A&M University
Poncirus trifoliata Missouri Botanical Garden
Poncirus trifoliata 'Monstrosa' ('Flying Dragon') Missouri Botanical Garden

Propagation and grafting
Reworking citrus trees NSW Department of Primary Industries
Budding Citrus Trees University of Arizona
Citrus Nursery Production Texas A&M University
Citrus Rooting Database, University of California, Davis
Seed development in Citrus Univ. Florida (PDF)

Pests and Diseases
Please note: it is posible that the information in these links (especially concerning pesticides) is out-of-date, not applicable in your state, or might only apply to commercial situations. They have been included for general information and further research. If in doubt, check with local authorities for current information on pesticides for home garden use where you live, and always follow directions on the label of any products you may purchase. (see also the Pests and Diseases page for general concepts).
Citrus in the garden (A simple overview of varieties and common problems) NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus pests, diseases, disorders and control NSW Department of Primary Industries
Common pests of citrus in home gardens Department of Agriculture Western Australia (PDF)
Common diseases of citrus in home gardens Department of Agriculture Western Australia (PDF)
Bronze Orange Bug (Musgraveia sulciventris) Australian Museum Online
Orchard Butterfly (Papilio aegeus) Australian Museum Online
Mite pests of citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries (PDF)
Mites in Citrus Department of Agriculture Western Australia (PDF)
Broad mite in fruit and ornamental plants (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) Dept of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Queensland
Broad Mite in rare fruit Dept of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Queensland
Citrus aphids NSW Department of Primary Industries
Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Queensland fruit fly in rare fruit Qld Dept of Primary Industries
Managing Queensland fruit fly in citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries (PDF)
Citrus gall wasp NSW DPI (PDF)
Citrus mealybug Queensland Dept Agriculture & Fisheries
Citrus Mealybugs Planococcus citri University of Florida
Red scale Host range includes citrus. Queensland Dept Agriculture & Fisheries
Fruit Piercing Moth on Citrus (Eudocima fullonia, E. materna and E. salaminia) Qld Dept of Primary Industries
(Heliothis armigera, Helicoverpa punctigera) Qld Dept of Primary Industries
Pink wax scale in longans (Ceroplastes rubens) Host range includes citrus. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries
Green Coffee Scale in Longan Host range includes citrus. Qld Dept of Primary Industries
False spider mites in rare fruit Qld Dept of Primary Industries
Orange fruit borer in rare fruit (Isotenes miserana) Qld Dept of Primary Industries
Banana-spotting & fruit-spotting bugs in rare fruit Host range of banana-spotting bug (Amblypelta lutescens lutescens) includes . Qld Primary Industries & Fisheries
Fuller's rose weevil NSW Department of Primary Industries
Yellow Peach Moth in rare fruit (Conogethes punctiferalis) Host range includes citrus. Qld Dept of Primary Industries
Using petroleum-based spray oils in citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries
Using copper sprays to control diseases in citrus NSW Department of Primary Industries

Looking for a citrus tree nursery in Qld? Go to the Queensland Gardening Page Fruit trees
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