Flowering Perennials

Types to grow in Queensland and how to grow them



In botany, the term "perennial" is generally used for the category of plants that live for more than one year, in contrast to annuals which complete their life cycle and die withing a year or biennials that mature, set seed and die in a two-year cycle.

In horticulture, "perennial" is usually applied to flowers other than annuals/biennials that are not woody or only only somewhat woody (versus true trees and shrubs which are technically perennial too). Examples are salvias, chrysanthemums and gerberas. It's a loose term whch might also include bulbous plants, ornamental grasses and sub-shrubs, which are comparable in their decorative uses in the garden.

Perennials are often associated with traditional, flowery English-style or cottage gardens. Consequently, many perennials you'll see in gardening books are unsuitable for most of Queensland. Unless you live in more temperate areas like Toowoomba and Granite belt, success here starts with selection of types suitable for tropical conditions. Be sure to check suitability for your climate when ordering perennials from suppliers based in the southern states.

Some of the more flamboyant perennials can also be used in tropical garden designs.

More Online Information

The following links are for general information, research and ideas - some species or cultivars referred to in overseas publications may be unavailable in Australia or unsuitable for Queensland conditions

General

Redefining perennials for use in Florida Reproduction of a 1997 article from the Florida State Horticultural Society (PDF)
Exceptional Flowering Perennials for Central Florida Reproduction of a 1989 article, Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society (PDF)
Perennial Bedding Plants for Hawaii University of Hawaii at Manoa (PDF)
Perennials Cornell University Cooperative Extension
Perennials - Tips for the Home Gardener Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania (PDF)
Deadheading Washington State University Clark County Extension
Perennials: staking Royal Horticultural Society, UK
Staking Perennials Iowa State University
Cures for floppy perennials Kansas State University


Varieties

These groups are covered on separate pages:
Other Daisies (Argyranthemum, Gazania, Aster, Chrysanthemum, Osteospermum, Dahlia, Zinnia and others
Hemerocallis (Daylily)
Pelargoniums (Geraniums)


Agastache

Agastache can provide garden color, fragrance Mississippi State University, USA

Alstroemeria

Alstroemeria Advice for professional growers from Western Australia Department of Agriculture (PDF)
Alstroemeria aurantiaca "Lily of the Incas" The Florez Nursery blog, NSW

Angelonia

Angelonia or Summer Snapdragon PlantAnswers, Texas
Try the "Summer Snapdragon" for great summer color Charlotte County Cooperative Extension Service, Florida (PDF)
Angelonia Cornell University
Angelonia Biflora post at Typicalgardener's Blog, Malaysia

 

Secrets of the black dahlia

A study of the "black" dahlia has revealed that the large amounts of red anthocyanins are produced due to a lack of flavones (associated with white flowers) competing for biochemical building blocks. It is not caused by increased activity of the anthocyanin pathway. The findings are a step towards engineering flavone content of plants. Source: Le Rouge et le Noir: Where the black dahlia gets its color (November 2012)

Dianthus and Carnation

The Biology and Ecology of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Carnation) (extensive literature review of the species and it's relatives) Office of the Gene Techology Regulator, Australian Govt (PDF)
Standard and spray carnations Department of Agriculture Western Australia (PDF)
Plant Captures Hearts Months After Bloom (Bath's Pink dianthus) Mississippi State University
Dianthus barbatus University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service
Amazon Pinks Hybridisation of D. barbatus with D. chinensis). University of Arkansas

Eranthemum

Eranthemum pulchellum Taxonomy Research & Information Network, Australia
Blue Sage (Eranthemum pulchellum) Waterwise Plant Selector, Dept Natural Resources and Mines, Qld
Eranthemum pulchellum Univ Florida (PDF)
Eranthemum pulchellum Flowers of India
Eranthemum pulchellum Eranthemum pulchellum
Eranthemum, Brisbane, early September 2013
Eranthemum pulchellum
Eranthemum plant habit. Red foliaged shrub on the right is a croton. (Macgregor, Brisbane, September 2013)

Gaura


Leonotis

Lion's Ear Leonotis leonurus. Online Manual of Subtropical Landscaping Plants, Palm Beach Community College, Florida
Leonotis leonurus Botany Photo of the Day, University of British Columbia Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research
Lion's Ear (Leonotis leonurus) Washington State University
Leonotus leonorus, Lion's ear The Florez Nursery blog, NSW
Lion's EarLeonotis leonurus Whatcom County Extension, Washington State University

Otacanthus

Otacanthus caeruleus Amazon Blue, Brazilian Snapdragon. Flowers of India
Outstanding Otacanthus Caeruleus post at Typicalgardener's Blog, Malaysia

Others

Scutellaria incana Missouri Botanical Garden
Senecio cineraria (Dusty miller) Missouri Botanical Garden
Santolina rosmarinifolia subsp. rosmarinifolia "Botany Photo of the Day", University of British Columbia Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research
Heliotropium arborescens,Cherry Pie The Florez Nursery blog, NSW
Heliotrope (Heliotropium arborescens or peruvianum) Washington State University
Russian sage, Perovskia atriplicifolia University of Wisconsin-Extension Master Gardener Program
Artemisia Kentucky Garden Flowers, University of Kentucky
Include gray-leafed plants in '05 gardens Mississippi State University
Phlox Notes on history and naming. Parker County Master Gardener Association, Texas (PDF)
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